History of Basketball
Dr. James Naismith, Inventor of Basketball
Dr. James Naismith is known world-wide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from Naismith's school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. The game involved attempting to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by tossing another rock at it. Naismith went on to attend McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
After serving as McGill's Athletic Director, James Naismith moved on to the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA in 1891, where the sport of basketball was born. In Springfield, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding a sport that was suitable for play inside during the Massachusetts winter for the students at the School for Christian Workers. Naismith wanted to create a game of skill for the students instead of one that relied solely on strength. He needed a game that could be played indoors in a relatively small space. The first game was played with a soccer ball and two peach baskets used as goals. Naismith joined the University of Kansas faculty in 1898, teaching physical education and being a chaplain.
Basketball is one of the world's most popular sports. It is a fast paced indoor team sport, requiring good levels of skill, speed, agility and endurance. And it is a lot of fun too.
James Naismith devised a set of thirteen rules of basketball:
- The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
- The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist.
- A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed.
- The ball must be held in or between the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.
- No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in any way of an opponent. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed.
- A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and 7. and such as described in Rule 5.
- If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).
- Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal.
- When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.
- The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have the power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.
- The referee shall be the judge of the ball and decide when it is in play in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.
- The time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes' rest between.
- The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.
In addition to the creation of the basketball, James Naismith graduated as a medical doctor, primarily interested in sports physiology and what we would today call sports science and as Presbyterian minister, with a keen interest in philosophy and clean living. Naismith watched his sport, basketball, introduced in many nations by the YMCA movement as early as 1893. Basketball was introduced at the Berlin Olympics in 1936. Naismith was flown to Berlin to watch the games. He died in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1939.
Today basketball has grown to become one of the world's most popular sports.
Basic Basketball rules
- Number of players
On a competition level, a team is made up of 5 players playing on the court and 5 players sitting on the bench that can be used for substitution during the whole period of the game.
The tallest player on the team usually plays “center” also known as “position 5”, while the medium size ones play “forwards” / “position 3 and 4”. The shortest players then play “guards” / “position 1 and 2”.
If the player successfully shoots from outside of the 3 points line, the basket is worth 3 points, otherwise it is worth 2 points.
It is also possible to score one point when shooting from the free throw line, after a foul for instance.
It can also result from the player taking more than 2 steps without bouncing the ball on the floor. This is called Traveling.
Another example of violation occurs when a player stops dribbling and then starts dribbling again or when he bounces the ball with both hands on the ball. We call this a double Dribble.
A violation is also committed if you twist your hand, when in contact with the ball, beyond the vertical, bringing it under the ball. This is called Carry, as the hand must always remain on the top of the ball.
There are two types of fouls. The first are called defensive fouls. They occur when the offensive player is being fouled by the defender. Defenders should not block, push, trip, strike or hold the player in possession of the ball. The second ones are the offensive fouls. For example, a player in offence commits a foul when charging into a stationary defender.
Other basketball types
- Wheelchair Basketball
Wheelchair basketball was invented in 1946 by a former American. "running" basketball players, who, after wartime injury, wanted to again experience the exhilaration of a highly athletic sport within a team environment. It is now played in more than 80 countries by over 25,000 men, women and children with a physical disability which prevents them from playing competitive basketball on their feet.
- Beach Basketball ®
Beach Basketball®is an exciting, non-stop action game played in the sand. The game was born over three decades ago on the physical education fields of Gulf Shores School. This modified version of basketball, invented by Philip Bryant has grown from a tremendously effective skill improvement game, to a very popular, widespread competitive sport.
- Street Ball (3-3 & 2-2)
Street ball is mainly played as a leisure game but street ball players can also compete against each other in outdoor tournaments. There are no specific streetball rules, the players define their way to play. Street ball is directly linked to urban culture which is very popular among younger players.
- Deaf Basketball
Basketball for Deaf (completely or partially unable to hear in one or both ears) men and women has been playing since early 1920. The game today is played with exactly the same rules complying with FIBA. Format of tournaments may be adjusted due to lesser number of participating countries.
- Bankshot Basketball
Bankshot is the only sports system that allows able-bodied and athletes with a disability to play together at the same time. This game involves no running, dribbling, jumping, or body contact and relies on the shooting skill.