Thursday, December 16, 2010
The History of Badminton
In the 5th century BC, the people in china then played a game called ti jian zi. A direct translation from this word 'ti jian zi' is kicking the shuttle. As the name suggest, the objective of the game is to keep the shuttle from hitting the ground without using hand. Whether this sport has anything to do with the History of Badminton is up for debate. It was however the first game that uses a Shuttle.
About five centuries later, a game named Battledore and Shuttlecock was played in china, Japan, India and Greece. This is a game where you use the Battledore (a paddle) to hit the Shuttlecock back and forth. By the 16th century, it has become a popular game among children in England. In Europe this game was known as jeu de volant to them. In the 1860s, a game named Poona was played in India. This game is much like the Battledore and Shuttlecock but with an added net. The British army learned this game in India and took the equipments back to England during the 1870s.
In 1873, the Duke of Beaufort held a lawn party in his country place, Badminton. A game of Poona was played on that day and became popular among the British society's elite. The new party sport became known as "the Badminton game". In 1877, the Bath Badminton Club was formed and developed the first official set of rules.
Rules Of Badminton
The rules of badminton states that a toss shall be conducted before a game starts. If you win, you can choose between serving first or to start play at either end of the court. Your opponent can then exercise the remaining choice.
The rules of badminton states that a badminton match shall consist of the best of 3 games. In doubles and men's singles, the first side to score 15 points wins the game. In women's singles, the first side to score 11 points wins the game.
If the score becomes 14-all (10-all in women's singles), the side which first scored 14 (10) shall exercise the choice to continue the game to 15 (11) points or to 'set' the game to 17 (13) points.
The side winning a game serves first in the next game. Only the serving side can add a point to its score.
Recently BWF have been testing a new scoring format of 21 points per game on all major Badminton competition and decided to replace the old format permanently.
Change of ends
The rules of badminton states that you have to change ends with your opponent after finishing the first game. If a third game was to be played, you shall change ends when the leading score reaches 6 in a game of 11 points or 8 in a game of 15 points.
Rules of Badminton - Singles
Serving and receiving courts
You shall serve from, and receive in, the right service court when you or your opponent has scored an even number of points in that game.
You shall serve from, and receive in, the left service court when you or your opponent has scored an odd number of points in that game.
You and your opponent will hit the shuttle alternately until a 'fault' is made or the shuttle ceases to be in play.
Scoring and serving
You score a point and serve again from the alternate service court when your opponent makes a 'fault' or the shuttle ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your opponent's side of court.
No points will be scored when you make a 'fault' or the shuttles ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your side of court. The serving right will then be transferred to your opponent.
Rules of Badminton - Doubles
At the start of the game, and each time a side gains the right to serve, the service shall be delivered from the right service court. Only your opponent standing diagonally opposite of you shall return the service.
Should your opponent's partner touched or hit the shuttle, it shall be a 'fault' and your side scores a point.
Order of play and position on court
After the service is returned, either you or your partner may hit the shuttle from any position on your side of the net. Then either player from the opposing side may do the same, and so on, until the shuttle ceases to be in play.
Scoring and serving
If you are serving or receiving first at the start of any game, you shall serve or receive in the right service court when your side or your opponent's side scored an even number of points.
You shall serve from or receive in the left service court when your side or your opponent's side has scored an odd number of points.
The reverse pattern shall apply to your partner.
In any game, the right to serve passes consecutively from the initial server to the initial receiver, then to that initial's receiver's partner, then to the opponent who is due to serve from the right service court, then to that player's partner, and so on.
You shall not serve out of turn, receive out of turn, or receive two consecutive services in the same game, except as provided in service court errors and 'lets'.
Service court errors
A service court error has been made when a player has served out of turn, has served from the wrong service or standing on the wrong service court while being prepared to receive the service and it has been delivered.
If a service court error is discovered after the next service had been delivered, the error shall not be corrected. If a service court error is discovered before the next service is delivered, the following rules apply.
If both sides committed an error, it shall be a 'let'. If one side committed the error and won the rally, it shall be a 'let'. If one side committed the error and lost the rally, the error shall not be corrected.
If there is a 'let' because of a service court error, the rally is replayed with the error corrected. If a service court error is not to be corrected, play in that game shall proceed without changing the player's new service courts.
The rules of badminton consider the following as faults:
- If the shuttle lands outside the boundaries of the court, passes through or under the net, fail to pass the net, touches the ceiling or side walls, touches the person or dress of a player or touches any other object or person.
- If the initial point of contact with the shuttle is not on the striker's side of the net. (The striker may, however, follow the shuttle over the net with the racket in the course of a stroke.)
- If a player touches the net or its supports with racket, person or dress, invades an opponent's court over the net with racket or person except as permitted.
- If a player invades an opponent's court under the net with racket or person such that an opponent is obstructed or distracted or obstructs an opponent, that is prevents an opponent from making a legal stroke where the shuttle is followed over the net.
- If a player deliberately distracts an opponent by any action such as shouting or making gestures.
- If the shuttle is caught and held on the racket and then slung during the execution of a stroke.
- If the shuttle is hit twice in succession by the same player with two strokes.
- If the shuttle is hit by a player and the player's partner successively or touches a player's racket and continues towards the back of that player's court.
- If a player is guilty of flagrant, repeated or persistent offences under Law of Continuous Play, Misconduct, Penalties.
- If, on service, the shuttle is caught on the net and remains suspended on top, or, on service, after passing over the net is caught in the net.
'Let' is called by the umpire, or by a player (if there is no umpire), to halt play.
A 'let' may be given for any unforeseen or accidental occurrence.The rules of badminton consider the following as 'lets':
- If a shuttle is caught in the net and remains suspended on top or, after passing over the net, is caught in the net, it shall be a 'let' except on service.
- If, during service, the receiver and server are both faulted at the same time, it shall be a 'let'.
- If the server serves before the receiver is ready, it shall be a 'let'.
- If, during play, the shuttle disintegrates and the base completely separates from the rest of the shuttle, is shall be a 'let'.
- If a line judge is unsighted and the umpire is unable to make a decision, it shall be a 'let'.
- A 'let' may occur following a service court error. When a 'let' occurs, the play since the last service shall not count and the player who served shall serve again, except where in situations where the Law of Service Court Errors is applicable.
Shuttle not in play
A shuttle is not in play when it strikes the net and remains attached there or suspended on top.
A shuttle is not in play when it strikes the net or post and starts to fall towards the surface of the court on the striker's side of the net.
A shuttle is not in play when it hits the surface of the court or a 'fault' or 'let' has occurred.
Continuous play, misconduct, penalties
Play shall be continuous from the first service until the match is concluded, except as allowed in intervals not exceeding 90 seconds between the first and second games, and not exceeding 5 minutes between the second and third games.
Officials and appeals
The referee is in overall charge of the tournament. The umpire, where appointed, is in charge of the match, the court and its immediate surrounds. The umpire shall report to the referee. The service judge shall call service faults made by the server should they occur. A line judge shall indicate whether a shuttle landed 'in' or 'out' on the line or lines assigned. An official's decision is final on all points of fact for which that official is responsible.
An umpire shall:
- Upload and enforce the Rules of Badminton and, especially, call a 'fault' or 'let' should either occur.
- Give a decision on any appeal regarding a point of dispute, if made before the next service is delivered.
- Ensure players and spectators are kept informed of the progress of the match.
- Appoint or remove line judges or a service judge in consultation with the referee.
- Where another court official is not appointed, arrange for that official's duties to be carried out.
- Where an appointed official is unsighted, carry out the official's duties or play a 'let'.
- Record and report to the referee all matters in relation to continuous play, misconduct and penalties.
- Take to the referee all unsatisfied appeals on questions of law only. (Such appeals must be made before the next service is delivered, or, if at the end of the game, before the side that appeals has left the court.)
History of Lacrosse
The game originally served as a way to show gratitude to the creator, respect for other members of a tribe, or to settle disputes between tribes. Games could last for days and there were no established field boundaries. In what is now southern Ontario and western New York, the six tribes of the Iroquois Nation first established the limit of 12 to 15 players and field boundaries. The game became one of the national sports of Canada (the other is hockey which is, in fact, patterned after lacrosse). It also became popular in the northeast, eventually spread to California and Ohio, and now has caught on in Texas, Florida and other states, and even other countries.
The sport's name comes from the French word for hooked stick, and the stick is a key piece of equipment in lacrosse. Sticks have three parts, the shaft or handle, head, and pocket. Sticks can be purchased assembled, or in parts. Many experienced players prefer to string their own heads. The depth of the pocket is limited by regulation. Attack sticks are 40 to 42 inches long, and defense sticks are six feet long.
Men's lacrosse includes protective gear, including a helmet, mouth guard, shoulder and elbow pads, and gloves. Some players also wear rib pads under their jerseys (it is a physical sport). Lacrosse players wear shoes with cleats, with the size and type dependent on the playing surface (real or artificial turf). Goalies wear additional protection, including chest and throat pads. Women lacrosse players wear mouth guards and goggles only, as checking is more limited in the women's game.
Basics of Playing Lacrosse
Lacrosse has elements of hockey, soccer, and basketball. It is played on a field 110 yards long, divided into halves by a midfield line. Each end has a 40-yard box called the restraining box or offensive or defensive zone. A 6 by 6 foot goal at each end of the field is surrounded by a circle called the crease.
Teams include 10 players, one goaltender or goalie, three defensemen, three midfielders, and three attackmen. Attackmen coordinate offense and try to score, generally staying on the offensive end of the field. Defensemen guard the opponent's attackers and try to take the ball away. Middies play both offense and defense, running the length of the field. Substitutions will, therefore, be more frequent for middies.
Play begins with a face-off between two middies at the center of midfield. Players place the head of their sticks together with the ball in between. At the whistle, each tries to gain possession of the ball or get it to a team mate. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands, but kicking it is legal.During play, each team must have four players in its defensive half, and three on the offensive half, or be called offsides. Offensive players may not step into the crease, and defensive players may not carry the ball into it. When a ball goes out of bounds, possession is usually awarded to the team that did not touch it last. If a ball goes out on a shot on goal, however, possession goes to the player closest to the ball when it leaves the field. When a team scores a goal, a face-off follows.
Youth games typically last 32 minutes with eight minute quarters. High school games are 48 minutes with 12 minute quarters. College games are 60 minutes long with 15 minute quarters. A two minute break is held between quarters and half time is ten minutes. Teams change sides each quarter.
Players are allowed to check the player with the ball and any player within five yards of a loose ball. Players can check with their body or their stick. Body checks cannot make contact above the shoulders, below the waist, or from the rear, and the player must have both hands on his own stick. Stick checks must be on the other player's stick or gloves, but checks that hit elsewhere may not be called if the defender had a chance of hitting the stick or glove but the offensive player moved or spun, causing the check to land elsewhere. Checking with the part of the stick between the gloves is not allowed.
Personal fouls include slashing, tripping, illegal body checks, cross-checking, and unnecessary roughness. These put the player in the penalty box for one minute. An illegal stick is also a personal foul. Technical fouls include delay of game, pushing, and interference and may result in loss of possession or 30 seconds in the box.
Women's lacrosse teams have 11 players, five on attack, five on defense, and a goalie. In a face-off, the ball is held between the back of two players' sticks above the ground. No body checking is allowed, only stick checks directed away from the player with the ball. Fouls are major or minor, and the penalty is a free position. High school games are 50 minutes, divided into two 25 minute halves, and college games are two 30 minute halves. Field size is flexible, but a maximum of 140 by 70 yards and a minimum of 110 by 60.
History Of Golf
Golf, a game played on a large open course with 9 or 18 holes; the object is use as few strokes as possible in playing all the holes.
Think golf is a slow-paced, low energy game? Believe that golf is for socializing but not for getting in shape? Are you under the impression that golf is just a game for businessmen or retirees? Think again.
Golf is rapidly becoming the sport of choice for fitness that transcends age and sex. In the United States alone, more than 14,000 golf courses serve more than 24 million people annually. Also, golf is gaining popularity, particularly in continental Europe, Canada, South Africa, Australia, India and Japan. In fact, Golfuninverse.com lists more than 24,000 golf courses worldwide.
The American Council on Exercise (ACE) recognizes golf as a legitimate sport for fitness. While golfers do not need to be in peak cardiovascular shape, they need strength, stamina, flexibility, coordination, concentration and skill in this challenging game. What's more, golf is an excellent part of a complete health regimen. That's because a well-rounded fitness program does more than improve your health. It also improves your golf game.
Everyone knows golf originated in Scotland, right?
Welllllllll ... yes and no.
It's definitely true that golf as we know it emerged in Scotland. The Scots were playing golf in its very basic form - take a club, swing it at a ball, move ball from starting point to finishing hole in as few strokes as possible - by at least the mid-15th Century.
Golf History in India
In India you can play golf almost anywhere, for this sport is widely played by a cross-section of people. In the hills and high Himalayan fastness, in metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes and forests, or sorrounded by tea estates, out in the deserts and in old cantonment...the flavour of India is visible everywhere.
India was the first country outside Great Britain to take up the game of golf. The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India and the first outside Great Britain. Because of the British rule, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new golf clubs in India. The founding of the Royal Golf Club of Calcutta in 1829 was followed by the now-defunct Royal Bombay Golf Club in 1842 and the Bangalore Golf Club in !876. The Shillong Golf Club incorporated a golf course in 1886.
List of golf lessons focusing on the fundamentals of the golf swing such as the grip, posture, ball position, takeaway backswing and throughswing. We believe that it is important to focus and develo pthe fundamentals befor moving on the more advanced golf lessons. Good Luck & Enjoy.
Start by checking out the most suitable grip for you, the one that gives you the best control of the club. This will take a bit of time and effort, but it is vitally important, so start experimenting.
A lot of things changed for the Ocean City High School field hockey team this fall, but Jenn Staab and her teammates made sure the Red Raiders' level of excellence stayed the same.
Staab, a four-year starter, scored 23 goals and had 10 assists as she led Ocean City to a 21-1 record and the team's third straight South Jersey Group III championship.
Staab, a center midfielder, is The Press Field Hockey Player of the Year.
She'll play for Rutgers University next year on a full athletic scholarship.
"It (being the Player of the Year) feels great. It's exciting," said Staab, 17, a resident of Marmora in Upper Township. "I had a mindset that it was my goal for us to be as good as last year. We were able to do that because everyone stepped up, not just me."
Ocean City was 22-2 in 2009 and won the state Group III title, but then longtime coach Trish LeFever stepped down in May and seven starters graduated, including stars Danielle McNally, Colleen Slaughter and goalie Natalie Hunter.
Cory Terry moved up from an assistant to the head-coaching job.
"Jenn was the backbone of the team," Terry said. "She started since she was a freshman and had a ton of experience. She's incredibly skilled and she's a great part of the program. She really took the reins of the team. Her experience helped to uphold the tradition of Ocean City field hockey. She not only had varsity experience, but she was used to being in big games."
Staab, a two-way player, was the team leader as Ocean City won every game until losing to Wall 3-2 in double-overtime in the state semifinal. Though it didn't win the state title, O.C. maintained the same dominance of the Cape-Atlantic League American Conference and South Jersey Group III.
"I think we surprised people because most people thought we wouldn't be the same," Staab said. "I wasn't really nervous. I was ready to be the leader. I knew the girls and I was used to working with them."
Staab scored twice in a 6-0 win over Millville, and came up with hat tricks in a 4-0 victory against Oakcrest and a 5-0 win over Hammonton. She had a goal and two assists in O.C's 6-0 South Jersey quarterfinal win over Seneca. The senior also helped out a defense that had 15 shutouts.
"Being the center mid, she has to go from end line to end line," Terry said. "She was a huge scoring threat, plus she was the left trail on defensive corners. She has worked really hard on her shot to prepare for college, and she has improved her reverse shot."
Staab had 45 career goals, 16th on Ocean City's all-time list.
Team of the Year
Ocean City again was the area's top team and finished third in The Press Elite 11. The Red Raiders were again 16-0 in the CAL American Conference and were rarely challenged. O.C. won its third consecutive South Jersey Group III title (and 10th overall), beating Central Regional 3-1 in the final. Ocean City's other South Jersey playoff wins were 6-0 over Seneca and 7-0 against Hammonton.
Ocean City's other numbers were similar to past years. The Red Raiders scored 113 goals and allowed 11. The team had 15 shutouts, the same as last year.
One thing improved over 2009. Haddonfield upset O.C. 1-0 last year in the regular season, but Ocean City beat Haddonfield 4-3 this fall.
History Of Fencing
The history of fencing parallels the evolution of civilization, back from the days of ancient Egypt and Rome, to the barbaric Dark Ages, to the fast and elegant Rennassiance, up to the modern, increasingly popular fencing of today. Fencing has always been regarded as more than a sport; it is an art form, an ancient symbol of power and glory, and a deeply personal, individual form of expression. Fencing is and always has been an intrinsic part of life, from the dueling and battle of yore to the widely captivating movies and facets of popular culture such as Zorro and The Princess Bride.
The earliest evidence of fencing as a sport comes from a carving in Egypt, dating back to about 1200 B.C., which shows a sport fencing bout with masks, protective weapon tips, and judges.
The Greek and Roman civilizations favored short swords and light spears, and taught their warriors in schools called ludi. The collapse of the Roman civilization at around 476 A.D., however, brought the crude, heavy weapons of the barbarian invaders and signalled a regression of fencing through the dark ages. It was not until the beginnings of the Renassiance in the 14th centurty that light, fast weapons such as the rapier came back into use, primarily because gunpowder rendered heavy armor obsolete.
The fifteenth century brought the beginnings of modern fencing. Spain had the first true fencers, and the first two fencing manuals were published there in 1471 and 1474, but swordplay guilds such as the Marxbruder from Germany began springing up all across Europe. About 1500 the Italians began extensive use of the Rapier. The right hand held te weapon while the left hand held a dagger (often called a Main Gauche) or buckler (a small shield), used for parrying blows. Italian fencing masters, such as Agrippa, who invented the four fencing positions (prime, seconde, tierce, and quarte), and masters Grassi and Vigiani, who invented the lunge, became very prolific in this time. The 16th century also brought a large increase in the popularity of dueling. More noblemen at during this period were killed in dueling than in war.
The Queen Catherine de Médicis of France had many Italian fencing masters come to France and develop fencing there. She was so successful that in 1567, her son, King Charles IX, officially recognized the French Fencing Academy, and awarded many hereditary titles to the new French fencing masters. These new masters were the first to classify and define fencing attacks and parries. In 1573 Henry de St. Didier was the first french fencing master to publish a treatise, and one of the first to advocate heavy use of the Épeé instead of the Rapier.
During the 17th century several major changes occured in fencing. The “fleuret”, or foil, was devoloped in France as a lighter training weapon for dueling. Right-of-way, a set of rules which made the game a series of alternating attacks and defense, became generally accepted. With right-of-way, duelists were unlikely to impale each other, as they did not both attack at the same time. This made fencing safer and reduced the number of casualties to dueling.
In the 18th century the heavier weapon called the Épeé became the popular weapon for dueling. The sabre, a weapon descended from the Oriental scimitar, becaume the national weapon of Hungary, and while the Italians helped develop the sport immensely, the Hungarians stayed the true masters of the sabre.
1780 brought an extremely important development to fencing. The French fencing master La Boessiere invented the fencing mask, allowing a much safer bout. This sparked a lot of development in non-fatal technique and strategy.
Fencing first came to America in the 1860’s-1870’s via immigrant French and Italian fencing masters, and the first American fencing school was founded in 1874. By this time fencing less resembled its violent roots and was now considered a non-harmful sport. Dueling never completely died out until after the end of World War I, but the majority of fencers were not warriors.
Men’s Sabre and foil competitions were present in the first modern olympic games in 1896, and Men’s Épeé joined in 1900. Women’s foil joined the Olympics in 1924, but it was not until 1996 that Women’s Épeé joined.
At the beginning of the 20th century French, Italians, and Hungarians were the masters of the sport, and thus it is not suprise that the International Fencing Federation (FIE) was founded in France. The French, Italians and Hungarians maintained their grip on the sport until the 1950’s, when eastern European countries such as the Soviet Union and Romania came to the fore. Their style emphasized speed and mobility, relying on touches that before would have gone undetected, but now were seen with the recently invented electric scoring machines.
Today cultural intermingling and competition has eliminated the national fencing styles; there are no longer French or Hungarian fencing techniques. Instead, the sport has become more reliant on individual technique. Fencing history is still being made today. Will Women’s sabre join as an olympic sport? Will wireless scoring devices become the norm with new technology? Only time will tell.
Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to disambiguate it from styles of historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.
Fencing is one of the four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games. Currently, three types of weapon are used in Olympic fencing:
Foil — a light thrusting weapon with a valid target area that is restricted to the torso, including the back, but not the arms. Hits are scored only with the tip; hits with the side of the blade of the weapon are disregarded. Only a single hit can be scored by either fencer at one time. If both fencers hit at the same time, the referee must use the rules of "right of way" to determine which fencer gets the touch.
Sabre — a light cutting and thrusting weapon that uses a valid target area of everything above the waist, except for the hands. The sabre is primarily used to slash, so hits with the side of the blade as well as the tip are scored as valid. Like the foil, this weapon follows the rules of "right of way", and only one fencer can score a hit at a time.
Épée — a heavy thrusting weapon, with a valid target area of the entire body, head to toe. Like the foil, all hits must be scored with the tip, and not the sides of the blade. Unlike either sabre or foil, epee allows simultaneous hits to be scored by both fencers at the same time. There is no "right of way" in épée.
Modern fencing originates in the 19th century, as a direct continuation of the 18th century French school of fencing which had in turn been influenced by the Italian school of the Renaissance.