Thursday, December 16, 2010

Triple H & Undertaker vs Edge & Big Show



The History of Badminton

In the 5th century BC, the people in china then played a game called ti jian zi. A direct translation from this word 'ti jian zi' is kicking the shuttle. As the name suggest, the objective of the game is to keep the shuttle from hitting the ground without using hand. Whether this sport has anything to do with the History of Badminton is up for debate. It was however the first game that uses a Shuttle.

About five centuries later, a game named Battledore and Shuttlecock was played in china, Japan, India and Greece. This is a game where you use the Battledore (a paddle) to hit the Shuttlecock back and forth. By the 16th century, it has become a popular game among children in England. In Europe this game was known as jeu de volant to them. In the 1860s, a game named Poona was played in India. This game is much like the Battledore and Shuttlecock but with an added net. The British army learned this game in India and took the equipments back to England during the 1870s.

In 1873, the Duke of Beaufort held a lawn party in his country place, Badminton. A game of Poona was played on that day and became popular among the British society's elite. The new party sport became known as "the Badminton game". In 1877, the Bath Badminton Club was formed and developed the first official set of rules.

Rules Of Badminton


The rules of badminton states that a toss shall be conducted before a game starts. If you win, you can choose between serving first or to start play at either end of the court. Your opponent can then exercise the remaining choice.

Scoring system

The rules of badminton states that a badminton match shall consist of the best of 3 games. In doubles and men's singles, the first side to score 15 points wins the game. In women's singles, the first side to score 11 points wins the game.

If the score becomes 14-all (10-all in women's singles), the side which first scored 14 (10) shall exercise the choice to continue the game to 15 (11) points or to 'set' the game to 17 (13) points.

The side winning a game serves first in the next game. Only the serving side can add a point to its score.

Recently BWF have been testing a new scoring format of 21 points per game on all major Badminton competition and decided to replace the old format permanently.

Change of ends

The rules of badminton states that you have to change ends with your opponent after finishing the first game. If a third game was to be played, you shall change ends when the leading score reaches 6 in a game of 11 points or 8 in a game of 15 points.

Rules of Badminton - Singles

Serving and receiving courts

You shall serve from, and receive in, the right service court when you or your opponent has scored an even number of points in that game.

You shall serve from, and receive in, the left service court when you or your opponent has scored an odd number of points in that game.

You and your opponent will hit the shuttle alternately until a 'fault' is made or the shuttle ceases to be in play.

Scoring and serving

You score a point and serve again from the alternate service court when your opponent makes a 'fault' or the shuttle ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your opponent's side of court.

No points will be scored when you make a 'fault' or the shuttles ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your side of court. The serving right will then be transferred to your opponent.

Rules of Badminton - Doubles

At the start of the game, and each time a side gains the right to serve, the service shall be delivered from the right service court. Only your opponent standing diagonally opposite of you shall return the service.

Should your opponent's partner touched or hit the shuttle, it shall be a 'fault' and your side scores a point.

Order of play and position on court

After the service is returned, either you or your partner may hit the shuttle from any position on your side of the net. Then either player from the opposing side may do the same, and so on, until the shuttle ceases to be in play.

Scoring and serving

If you are serving or receiving first at the start of any game, you shall serve or receive in the right service court when your side or your opponent's side scored an even number of points.

You shall serve from or receive in the left service court when your side or your opponent's side has scored an odd number of points.

The reverse pattern shall apply to your partner.

In any game, the right to serve passes consecutively from the initial server to the initial receiver, then to that initial's receiver's partner, then to the opponent who is due to serve from the right service court, then to that player's partner, and so on.

You shall not serve out of turn, receive out of turn, or receive two consecutive services in the same game, except as provided in service court errors and 'lets'.

Service court errors

A service court error has been made when a player has served out of turn, has served from the wrong service or standing on the wrong service court while being prepared to receive the service and it has been delivered.

If a service court error is discovered after the next service had been delivered, the error shall not be corrected. If a service court error is discovered before the next service is delivered, the following rules apply.

If both sides committed an error, it shall be a 'let'. If one side committed the error and won the rally, it shall be a 'let'. If one side committed the error and lost the rally, the error shall not be corrected.

If there is a 'let' because of a service court error, the rally is replayed with the error corrected. If a service court error is not to be corrected, play in that game shall proceed without changing the player's new service courts.


The rules of badminton consider the following as faults:

- If the shuttle lands outside the boundaries of the court, passes through or under the net, fail to pass the net, touches the ceiling or side walls, touches the person or dress of a player or touches any other object or person.

- If the initial point of contact with the shuttle is not on the striker's side of the net. (The striker may, however, follow the shuttle over the net with the racket in the course of a stroke.)

- If a player touches the net or its supports with racket, person or dress, invades an opponent's court over the net with racket or person except as permitted.

- If a player invades an opponent's court under the net with racket or person such that an opponent is obstructed or distracted or obstructs an opponent, that is prevents an opponent from making a legal stroke where the shuttle is followed over the net.

- If a player deliberately distracts an opponent by any action such as shouting or making gestures.

- If the shuttle is caught and held on the racket and then slung during the execution of a stroke.

- If the shuttle is hit twice in succession by the same player with two strokes.

- If the shuttle is hit by a player and the player's partner successively or touches a player's racket and continues towards the back of that player's court.

- If a player is guilty of flagrant, repeated or persistent offences under Law of Continuous Play, Misconduct, Penalties.

- If, on service, the shuttle is caught on the net and remains suspended on top, or, on service, after passing over the net is caught in the net.


'Let' is called by the umpire, or by a player (if there is no umpire), to halt play.

A 'let' may be given for any unforeseen or accidental occurrence.The rules of badminton consider the following as 'lets':

- If a shuttle is caught in the net and remains suspended on top or, after passing over the net, is caught in the net, it shall be a 'let' except on service.

- If, during service, the receiver and server are both faulted at the same time, it shall be a 'let'.

- If the server serves before the receiver is ready, it shall be a 'let'.

- If, during play, the shuttle disintegrates and the base completely separates from the rest of the shuttle, is shall be a 'let'.

- If a line judge is unsighted and the umpire is unable to make a decision, it shall be a 'let'.

- A 'let' may occur following a service court error. When a 'let' occurs, the play since the last service shall not count and the player who served shall serve again, except where in situations where the Law of Service Court Errors is applicable.

Shuttle not in play

A shuttle is not in play when it strikes the net and remains attached there or suspended on top.

A shuttle is not in play when it strikes the net or post and starts to fall towards the surface of the court on the striker's side of the net.

A shuttle is not in play when it hits the surface of the court or a 'fault' or 'let' has occurred.

Continuous play, misconduct, penalties

Play shall be continuous from the first service until the match is concluded, except as allowed in intervals not exceeding 90 seconds between the first and second games, and not exceeding 5 minutes between the second and third games.

Officials and appeals

The referee is in overall charge of the tournament. The umpire, where appointed, is in charge of the match, the court and its immediate surrounds. The umpire shall report to the referee. The service judge shall call service faults made by the server should they occur. A line judge shall indicate whether a shuttle landed 'in' or 'out' on the line or lines assigned. An official's decision is final on all points of fact for which that official is responsible.

An umpire shall:

- Upload and enforce the Rules of Badminton and, especially, call a 'fault' or 'let' should either occur.

- Give a decision on any appeal regarding a point of dispute, if made before the next service is delivered.

- Ensure players and spectators are kept informed of the progress of the match.

- Appoint or remove line judges or a service judge in consultation with the referee.

- Where another court official is not appointed, arrange for that official's duties to be carried out.

- Where an appointed official is unsighted, carry out the official's duties or play a 'let'.

- Record and report to the referee all matters in relation to continuous play, misconduct and penalties.

- Take to the referee all unsatisfied appeals on questions of law only. (Such appeals must be made before the next service is delivered, or, if at the end of the game, before the side that appeals has left the court.)



History of Lacrosse

The game originally served as a way to show gratitude to the creator, respect for other members of a tribe, or to settle disputes between tribes. Games could last for days and there were no established field boundaries. In what is now southern Ontario and western New York, the six tribes of the Iroquois Nation first established the limit of 12 to 15 players and field boundaries. The game became one of the national sports of Canada (the other is hockey which is, in fact, patterned after lacrosse). It also became popular in the northeast, eventually spread to California and Ohio, and now has caught on in Texas, Florida and other states, and even other countries.

Lacrosse Equipment

The sport's name comes from the French word for hooked stick, and the stick is a key piece of equipment in lacrosse. Sticks have three parts, the shaft or handle, head, and pocket. Sticks can be purchased assembled, or in parts. Many experienced players prefer to string their own heads. The depth of the pocket is limited by regulation. Attack sticks are 40 to 42 inches long, and defense sticks are six feet long.
Men's lacrosse includes protective gear, including a helmet, mouth guard, shoulder and elbow pads, and gloves. Some players also wear rib pads under their jerseys (it is a physical sport). Lacrosse players wear shoes with cleats, with the size and type dependent on the playing surface (real or artificial turf). Goalies wear additional protection, including chest and throat pads. Women lacrosse players wear mouth guards and goggles only, as checking is more limited in the women's game.

Basics of Playing Lacrosse

Lacrosse has elements of hockey, soccer, and basketball. It is played on a field 110 yards long, divided into halves by a midfield line. Each end has a 40-yard box called the restraining box or offensive or defensive zone. A 6 by 6 foot goal at each end of the field is surrounded by a circle called the crease.

Teams include 10 players, one goaltender or goalie, three defensemen, three midfielders, and three attackmen. Attackmen coordinate offense and try to score, generally staying on the offensive end of the field. Defensemen guard the opponent's attackers and try to take the ball away. Middies play both offense and defense, running the length of the field. Substitutions will, therefore, be more frequent for middies.

Play begins with a face-off between two middies at the center of midfield. Players place the head of their sticks together with the ball in between. At the whistle, each tries to gain possession of the ball or get it to a team mate. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands, but kicking it is legal.During play, each team must have four players in its defensive half, and three on the offensive half, or be called offsides. Offensive players may not step into the crease, and defensive players may not carry the ball into it. When a ball goes out of bounds, possession is usually awarded to the team that did not touch it last. If a ball goes out on a shot on goal, however, possession goes to the player closest to the ball when it leaves the field. When a team scores a goal, a face-off follows.

Youth games typically last 32 minutes with eight minute quarters. High school games are 48 minutes with 12 minute quarters. College games are 60 minutes long with 15 minute quarters. A two minute break is held between quarters and half time is ten minutes. Teams change sides each quarter.

Lacrosse Penalties

Players are allowed to check the player with the ball and any player within five yards of a loose ball. Players can check with their body or their stick. Body checks cannot make contact above the shoulders, below the waist, or from the rear, and the player must have both hands on his own stick. Stick checks must be on the other player's stick or gloves, but checks that hit elsewhere may not be called if the defender had a chance of hitting the stick or glove but the offensive player moved or spun, causing the check to land elsewhere. Checking with the part of the stick between the gloves is not allowed.

Personal fouls include slashing, tripping, illegal body checks, cross-checking, and unnecessary roughness. These put the player in the penalty box for one minute. An illegal stick is also a personal foul. Technical fouls include delay of game, pushing, and interference and may result in loss of possession or 30 seconds in the box.

Women's Lacrosse

Women's lacrosse teams have 11 players, five on attack, five on defense, and a goalie. In a face-off, the ball is held between the back of two players' sticks above the ground. No body checking is allowed, only stick checks directed away from the player with the ball. Fouls are major or minor, and the penalty is a free position. High school games are 50 minutes, divided into two 25 minute halves, and college games are two 30 minute halves. Field size is flexible, but a maximum of 140 by 70 yards and a minimum of 110 by 60.



History Of Golf

Golf, a game played on a large open course with 9 or 18 holes; the object is use as few strokes as possible in playing all the holes.

Think golf is a slow-paced, low energy game? Believe that golf is for socializing but not for getting in shape? Are you under the impression that golf is just a game for businessmen or retirees? Think again.

Golf is rapidly becoming the sport of choice for fitness that transcends age and sex. In the United States alone, more than 14,000 golf courses serve more than 24 million people annually. Also, golf is gaining popularity, particularly in continental Europe, Canada, South Africa, Australia, India and Japan. In fact, lists more than 24,000 golf courses worldwide.

The American Council on Exercise (ACE) recognizes golf as a legitimate sport for fitness. While golfers do not need to be in peak cardiovascular shape, they need strength, stamina, flexibility, coordination, concentration and skill in this challenging game. What's more, golf is an excellent part of a complete health regimen. That's because a well-rounded fitness program does more than improve your health. It also improves your golf game.

Everyone knows golf originated in Scotland, right?
Welllllllll ... yes and no.

It's definitely true that golf as we know it emerged in Scotland. The Scots were playing golf in its very basic form - take a club, swing it at a ball, move ball from starting point to finishing hole in as few strokes as possible - by at least the mid-15th Century.

Golf History in India

In India you can play golf almost anywhere, for this sport is widely played by a cross-section of people. In the hills and high Himalayan fastness, in metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes and forests, or sorrounded by tea estates, out in the deserts and in old cantonment...the flavour of India is visible everywhere.

India was the first country outside Great Britain to take up the game of golf. The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829, is the oldest golf club in India and the first outside Great Britain. Because of the British rule, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of new golf clubs in India. The founding of the Royal Golf Club of Calcutta in 1829 was followed by the now-defunct Royal Bombay Golf Club in 1842 and the Bangalore Golf Club in !876. The Shillong Golf Club incorporated a golf course in 1886.

Learn Golf

List of golf lessons focusing on the fundamentals of the golf swing such as the grip, posture, ball position, takeaway backswing and throughswing. We believe that it is important to focus and develo pthe fundamentals befor moving on the more advanced golf lessons. Good Luck & Enjoy.

Golfing Tips

Start by checking out the most suitable grip for you, the one that gives you the best control of the club. This will take a bit of time and effort, but it is vitally important, so start experimenting.

Field Hockey

Field Hockey

A lot of things changed for the Ocean City High School field hockey team this fall, but Jenn Staab and her teammates made sure the Red Raiders' level of excellence stayed the same.

Staab, a four-year starter, scored 23 goals and had 10 assists as she led Ocean City to a 21-1 record and the team's third straight South Jersey Group III championship.

Staab, a center midfielder, is The Press Field Hockey Player of the Year.

She'll play for Rutgers University next year on a full athletic scholarship.

"It (being the Player of the Year) feels great. It's exciting," said Staab, 17, a resident of Marmora in Upper Township. "I had a mindset that it was my goal for us to be as good as last year. We were able to do that because everyone stepped up, not just me."

Ocean City was 22-2 in 2009 and won the state Group III title, but then longtime coach Trish LeFever stepped down in May and seven starters graduated, including stars Danielle McNally, Colleen Slaughter and goalie Natalie Hunter.

Cory Terry moved up from an assistant to the head-coaching job.

"Jenn was the backbone of the team," Terry said. "She started since she was a freshman and had a ton of experience. She's incredibly skilled and she's a great part of the program. She really took the reins of the team. Her experience helped to uphold the tradition of Ocean City field hockey. She not only had varsity experience, but she was used to being in big games."

Staab, a two-way player, was the team leader as Ocean City won every game until losing to Wall 3-2 in double-overtime in the state semifinal. Though it didn't win the state title, O.C. maintained the same dominance of the Cape-Atlantic League American Conference and South Jersey Group III.

"I think we surprised people because most people thought we wouldn't be the same," Staab said. "I wasn't really nervous. I was ready to be the leader. I knew the girls and I was used to working with them."
Staab scored twice in a 6-0 win over Millville, and came up with hat tricks in a 4-0 victory against Oakcrest and a 5-0 win over Hammonton. She had a goal and two assists in O.C's 6-0 South Jersey quarterfinal win over Seneca. The senior also helped out a defense that had 15 shutouts.

"Being the center mid, she has to go from end line to end line," Terry said. "She was a huge scoring threat, plus she was the left trail on defensive corners. She has worked really hard on her shot to prepare for college, and she has improved her reverse shot."

Staab had 45 career goals, 16th on Ocean City's all-time list.
Team of the Year

Ocean City again was the area's top team and finished third in The Press Elite 11. The Red Raiders were again 16-0 in the CAL American Conference and were rarely challenged. O.C. won its third consecutive South Jersey Group III title (and 10th overall), beating Central Regional 3-1 in the final. Ocean City's other South Jersey playoff wins were 6-0 over Seneca and 7-0 against Hammonton.

Ocean City's other numbers were similar to past years. The Red Raiders scored 113 goals and allowed 11. The team had 15 shutouts, the same as last year.

One thing improved over 2009. Haddonfield upset O.C. 1-0 last year in the regular season, but Ocean City beat Haddonfield 4-3 this fall.



History Of Fencing

The history of fencing parallels the evolution of civilization, back from the days of ancient Egypt and Rome, to the barbaric Dark Ages, to the fast and elegant Rennassiance, up to the modern, increasingly popular fencing of today. Fencing has always been regarded as more than a sport; it is an art form, an ancient symbol of power and glory, and a deeply personal, individual form of expression. Fencing is and always has been an intrinsic part of life, from the dueling and battle of yore to the widely captivating movies and facets of popular culture such as Zorro and The Princess Bride.

The earliest evidence of fencing as a sport comes from a carving in Egypt, dating back to about 1200 B.C., which shows a sport fencing bout with masks, protective weapon tips, and judges.

The Greek and Roman civilizations favored short swords and light spears, and taught their warriors in schools called ludi. The collapse of the Roman civilization at around 476 A.D., however, brought the crude, heavy weapons of the barbarian invaders and signalled a regression of fencing through the dark ages. It was not until the beginnings of the Renassiance in the 14th centurty that light, fast weapons such as the rapier came back into use, primarily because gunpowder rendered heavy armor obsolete.

The fifteenth century brought the beginnings of modern fencing. Spain had the first true fencers, and the first two fencing manuals were published there in 1471 and 1474, but swordplay guilds such as the Marxbruder from Germany began springing up all across Europe. About 1500 the Italians began extensive use of the Rapier. The right hand held te weapon while the left hand held a dagger (often called a Main Gauche) or buckler (a small shield), used for parrying blows. Italian fencing masters, such as Agrippa, who invented the four fencing positions (prime, seconde, tierce, and quarte), and masters Grassi and Vigiani, who invented the lunge, became very prolific in this time. The 16th century also brought a large increase in the popularity of dueling. More noblemen at during this period were killed in dueling than in war.

The Queen Catherine de Médicis of France had many Italian fencing masters come to France and develop fencing there. She was so successful that in 1567, her son, King Charles IX, officially recognized the French Fencing Academy, and awarded many hereditary titles to the new French fencing masters. These new masters were the first to classify and define fencing attacks and parries. In 1573 Henry de St. Didier was the first french fencing master to publish a treatise, and one of the first to advocate heavy use of the Épeé instead of the Rapier.

During the 17th century several major changes occured in fencing. The “fleuret”, or foil, was devoloped in France as a lighter training weapon for dueling. Right-of-way, a set of rules which made the game a series of alternating attacks and defense, became generally accepted. With right-of-way, duelists were unlikely to impale each other, as they did not both attack at the same time. This made fencing safer and reduced the number of casualties to dueling.

In the 18th century the heavier weapon called the Épeé became the popular weapon for dueling. The sabre, a weapon descended from the Oriental scimitar, becaume the national weapon of Hungary, and while the Italians helped develop the sport immensely, the Hungarians stayed the true masters of the sabre.

1780 brought an extremely important development to fencing. The French fencing master La Boessiere invented the fencing mask, allowing a much safer bout. This sparked a lot of development in non-fatal technique and strategy.

Fencing first came to America in the 1860’s-1870’s via immigrant French and Italian fencing masters, and the first American fencing school was founded in 1874. By this time fencing less resembled its violent roots and was now considered a non-harmful sport. Dueling never completely died out until after the end of World War I, but the majority of fencers were not warriors.

Men’s Sabre and foil competitions were present in the first modern olympic games in 1896, and Men’s Épeé joined in 1900. Women’s foil joined the Olympics in 1924, but it was not until 1996 that Women’s Épeé joined.

At the beginning of the 20th century French, Italians, and Hungarians were the masters of the sport, and thus it is not suprise that the International Fencing Federation (FIE) was founded in France. The French, Italians and Hungarians maintained their grip on the sport until the 1950’s, when eastern European countries such as the Soviet Union and Romania came to the fore. Their style emphasized speed and mobility, relying on touches that before would have gone undetected, but now were seen with the recently invented electric scoring machines.

Today cultural intermingling and competition has eliminated the national fencing styles; there are no longer French or Hungarian fencing techniques. Instead, the sport has become more reliant on individual technique. Fencing history is still being made today. Will Women’s sabre join as an olympic sport? Will wireless scoring devices become the norm with new technology? Only time will tell.

About Fencing

Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to disambiguate it from styles of historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.

Fencing is one of the four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games. Currently, three types of weapon are used in Olympic fencing:

Foil — a light thrusting weapon with a valid target area that is restricted to the torso, including the back, but not the arms. Hits are scored only with the tip; hits with the side of the blade of the weapon are disregarded. Only a single hit can be scored by either fencer at one time. If both fencers hit at the same time, the referee must use the rules of "right of way" to determine which fencer gets the touch.

Sabre — a light cutting and thrusting weapon that uses a valid target area of everything above the waist, except for the hands. The sabre is primarily used to slash, so hits with the side of the blade as well as the tip are scored as valid. Like the foil, this weapon follows the rules of "right of way", and only one fencer can score a hit at a time.

Épée — a heavy thrusting weapon, with a valid target area of the entire body, head to toe. Like the foil, all hits must be scored with the tip, and not the sides of the blade. Unlike either sabre or foil, epee allows simultaneous hits to be scored by both fencers at the same time. There is no "right of way" in épée.

Modern fencing originates in the 19th century, as a direct continuation of the 18th century French school of fencing which had in turn been influenced by the Italian school of the Renaissance.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010


History Of Netball

    * Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. The sport shares many similarities with basketball, having been derived from early versions of women's basketball. It developed as a distinct sport in the 1890s in England, from where it spread to other countries. Netball is popular in Commonwealth nations and is predominantly played by women.

    * Games are played on a rectangular court divided into thirds, with a raised goal at each short end. The object of the game is for teams to score goals, by passing a ball and shooting it into the opposing team's goal. Players are assigned "positions" that define their role within the team and restrict their movement on court. During general play, a player with the ball can take no more than one step before passing it, and must pass the ball or shoot for goal within three seconds. Goals can only be scored by the assigned shooting players. Netball games are 60 minutes long, divided into 15-minute quarters, at the end of which the team with the most goals scored wins.

Court and its dimensions

    * Like basketball, netball is played on either a hard or soft court with scoring hoops or "rings" at both ends. The court is slightly larger than a basketball court, being 30.5 m long and 15.25 m wide. The longer sides are called "side lines" and the shorter sides are called "goal lines"or "back lines". Court markings are no more than 50 mm wide. The court is divided into thirds which regulate where individuals of each position are allowed to move. A 90 cm-diameter "centre circle" is located in the centre of the court. At each end of the court there is a 4.9 m-radius semi-circular "shooting circle" or "goal circle" from within which all scoring shots must be taken. The goal posts are 3.05 m high from the top of the ring to the ground and have no backboards. The rings have an internal diameter of 380 mm and are located 150 mm forward from the post and are made of 15 mm diameter steel. The height is the same as a basketball hoop, but in netball the diameter of the rings is 3 inches smaller. It is possible to play netball using a basketball hoop but if there is any contact between the ball and the backboard, the ball is considered out of play. If a goal is scored off the backboard it does not count. Some versions of the rules allow a goal to be scored from a backboard rebound if a player who can catch the ball throws the ball in without touching the ground.

Scoring goals

    * By the combination of the above, only the Goal Attack and Goal Shooter are able to score goals directly, and this may only be done from the inside of the circle. The job of the Goal Defence and Goal Keeper is to block the Goal Attack and Goal Shooter from shooting; however, they must be three feet or more away from the landing foot of the shooter, otherwise it is called an obstruction. In this, the Goal Keeper or Goal Defence must stand by the shooter's side for a penalty pass or shot and are now not allowed to block. A ball that passes through the hoop, but has been thrown either from outside the circle or by a player not the GA or GS, is deemed a "no goal". Furthermore, a shooter (GA or GS) may not shoot for a goal if a "free pass" has been awarded for an infringement such as stepping, offside, or using the post.

    * If a player misses and the ball does not touch the rim or any part of the post, the player cannot catch it otherwise it is called replay. This results in a free pass to the other team.

Starting and restarting play

    * At the beginning of every quarter or after a goal is scored, play starts from the centre of the court with a "centre pass". These passes alternate between the teams, regardless of which team scored the last goal. A centre pass is made by a player in the "centre" position who must have one foot grounded within the centre circle. As the game restarts, only the player in the 'Centre' position from each team are allowed in the centre third of the court. When the umpire blows the whistle to restart play, players in the positions "Goal Attack", "Goal Defence", "Wing Attack" and "Wing Defence" can move into the centre third, where the centre pass must be caught.

    * If the ball touches the ground outside the court boundaries, then a member of the team that was not the last to touch the ball before it went out is able to throw the ball back into the court to restart play.

Stepping, footwork, and passing

    * Netball rules do not permit players to let their landing foot touch the ground again if it is lifted at all while in possession of the ball, so players can take 1.5 steps while holding the ball. Players are entitled to balance on the other foot if the landing foot is lifted. Consequently, the only way to move the ball towards the goal is to throw the ball to a team-mate. The ball can be held by a player for less than three seconds at any time. A player may tap (deflect) the ball let it bounce and then take possession and throw it. The player cannot catch the ball (with both hands), drop it and pick it up again; this is called a replayed ball. The duration before it is called a drop is determined by the umpire. These rules, combined with the restrictions on where one player of a particular position can move, ensure that everyone on the team is regularly involved in play.

Contact and obstruction

    * Contact is only permitted provided it does not impede with an opponent or the general play and players must be at least three feet (90 centimetres) away from a player with the ball while attempting to defend. If impeding contact is made, a penalty is given to the team of the player who was contacted, and the player who contacted must stand "out of play", meaning they cannot participate in play until the player taking the penalty has passed the ball.

Playing time

    * A game is played in four quarters, each one lasting fifteen minutes, with intervals of three minutes between the first and second quarters, and between the third and fourth quarters. There is also an interval of five minutes at half time. If a player/umpire calls time, and the time keeper pauses the timer. When the game starts and the player has swapped places with another player, or is healthy, play is resumed and the timer is restarted.


History of cycling

    * Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide.[4] They are the principal means of transportation in many regions.

    * Cycling is an extremely efficient mode of transportation[5] optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits compared to motor vehicles, including exercise, an alternative to the use of fossil fuels, no air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion and likelihood of causing a fatality, easier parking, greater maneuverability, and access to both roads and paths. The advantages are at less financial cost to the user as well as society (negligible damage to roads, and less pavement required).[6] Criticisms and disadvantages of cycling include reduced protection in crashes, particularly with motor vehicles,[7] longer travel time (except in densely populated areas), vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, and the skill and fitness required.


    * Cyclists, pedestrians and motorists make different demands on road design which may lead to conflicts. Some jurisdictions give priority to motorized traffic, for example setting up one-way street systems, free-right turns, high capacity roundabouts, and slip roads. Others may apply traffic restraint measures to limit the impact of motorized transport. In the former cases, cycling has tended to decline while in the latter it has tended to be maintained. Occasionally, extreme measures against cycling may occur. In Shanghai, where bicycles were once the dominant mode of transport, bicycle travel on a few city roads was banned temporarily in December 2003.

    * In areas in which cycling is popular and encouraged, cycle-parking facilities using bicycle stands, lockable mini-garages, and patrolled cycle parks are used in order to reduce theft. Local governments promote cycling by permitting the carriage of bicycles on public transport or by providing external attachment devices on public transport vehicles. Conversely, an absence of secure cycle-parking is a recurring complaint by cyclists from cities with low modal share of cycling


    * Utility cycling refers both to cycling as a mode of daily commuting transport as well as the use of a bicycle in a commercial activity, mainly to transport goods.

    * The postal services of many countries have long relied on bicycles. The British Royal Mail first started using bicycles in 1880; now bicycle delivery fleets include 37,000 in the UK, 25,700 in Germany, 10,500 in Hungary and 7000 in Sweden. The London Ambulance Service has recently introduced bicycling paramedics, who can often get to the scene of an incident in Central London more quickly than a motorized ambulance.

    * Late in the 20th century, urban police bicycles became more common, as the mobility of car-borne officers was increasingly limited by traffic congestion and pedestrianisation.


Bicycle Touring

    * Bicycles are used for recreation at all ages. Bicycle touring, also known as cyclotourism, involves touring and exploration or sightseeing by bicycle for leisure. A brevet or randonnée is an organized long-distance ride.

    * One popular Dutch pleasure is the enjoyment of relaxed cycling in the countryside of the Netherlands. The land is very flat and full of public bicycle trails where cyclists aren't bothered by cars and other traffic, which makes it ideal for cycling recreation. Many Dutch people subscribe every year to an event called fietsvierdaagse — four days of organised cycling through the local environment. Paris–Brest–Paris (PBP), which began in 1891, is the oldest bicycling event still run on a regular basis on the open road, covers over 1,200 km (746 mi) and imposes a 90-hour time limit. Similar if smaller institutions exist in many countries.


    * Mountain biking grew in the late 20th century, including recreation and racing. Most mountain biking takes place on dirt roads, trails and in purpose-built parks. Downhill mountain biking has just evolved in the recent years and is performed at places such as Whistler Mountain Bike Park. Slopestyle, a form of downhill, is when riders do tricks such as tailwhips, 360s, backflips and frontflips.


    * Cyclists form associations, both for specific interests (trails development, road maintenance, urban design, racing clubs, touring clubs, etc.) and for more global goals (energy conservation, pollution reduction, promotion of fitness). Some bicycle clubs and national associations became prominent advocates for improvements to roads and highways. In the United States, the League of American Wheelmen lobbied for the improvement of roads in the last part of the 19th century, founding and leading the national Good Roads Movement. Their model for political organization, as well as the paved roads for which they argued, facilitated the growth of the automobile.

    * As a sport, cycling is governed internationally by the Union Cycliste Internationale in Switzerland, USA Cycling (merged with the United States Cycling Federation in 1995) in the United States, (for upright bicycles) and by the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (for other HPVs, or human-powered vehicles). Cycling for transport and touring is promoted on a European level by the European Cyclists' Federation, with associated members from Great Britain, Japan and elsewhere.


History of Diving

    * Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.

    * Diving is one of the most popular Olympic sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts and dancers, including strength, flexibility, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness.

    * China came to prominence several decades ago when the sport was revolutionized by national coach Liang Boxi and after intense study of the dominant Louganis. China has lost few world titles since. The success of Greg Louganis has led to American strength in diving internationally. Other noted countries in the sport include Italy, Australia and Canada.

Competitive springboard diving

Arvid Spångberg (1908 Summer Olympics)

    * A man dives into the Great South Bay of Long Island

    * Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1m and 3m springboards, and the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, and often by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives on either the five, seven and a half (generally just called seven) or ten meter towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games and the World Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height.

    * Divers have to perform a set number of dives according to established requirements, including somersaults and twists. Divers are judged on whether and how well they completed all aspects of the dive, the conformance of their body to the requirements of the dive, and the amount of splash created by their entry to the water. A possible score out of ten is broken down into three points for the takeoff, three for the flight, and three for the entry, with one more available to give the judges flexibility.

Synchronized diving

    * Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers form a team and perform dives simultaneously. The dives are usually identical; however, sometimes the dives may be opposites, in what is called a pinwheel. In these events, the diving is judged both on the quality of execution and the synchronicity - in timing of take-off and entry, height and forward travel.

Scoring the dive

There are rules governing the scoring of a dive. Usually a score considers three elements of the dive: the approach, the flight, and the entry. The primary factors affecting the scoring are:

the platform selected (10 meter, 7.5 meter, or 5 meter)

   1. if a hand-stand is required, the length of time and quality of the hold
   2. the height of the diver at the apex of the dive, with extra height resulting in a higher score
   3. the distance of the diver from the diving apparatus throughout the dive (a diver must not be dangerously close, should not be too far away, but should ideally be within 2 feet (0.61 m) of the platform)
   4. the properly defined body position of the diver according to the dive being performed, including pointed toes and feet touching at all times
   5. the proper amounts of rotation and revolution upon completion of the dive and entry into the water
   6. angle of entry - a diver should enter the water straight, without any angle. Many judges award divers for the amount of splash created by the diver on entry, with less splash resulting in a higher score.

Competitive strategy
    * To win dive meets, divers create a dive list in advance of the meet. To win the meet the diver must accumulate more points than other divers. Often, simple dives with low DDs will look good to spectators but will not win meets. The competitive diver will attempt the highest DD dives possible with which they can achieve consistent, high scores. If divers are scoring 8 or 9 on most dives, it may be a sign of their extreme skill, or it may be a sign that their dive list is not competitive, and they may lose the meet to a diver with higher DDs and lower scores.

    * In competition, divers must submit their lists beforehand, and once past a deadline (usually when the event is announced or shortly before it begins) they cannot change their dives. If they fail to perform the dive announced, even if they physically cannot execute the dive announced or if they perform a more difficult dive, they will receive a score of zero. Under exceptional circumstances, a redive may be granted, but these are exceedingly rare (usually for very young divers just learning how to compete, or if some event outside the diver's control has caused them to be unable to perform).


    * The global governing body of diving is FINA, which also governs swimming, synchronized swimming, water polo and open water swimming. Almost invariably, at national level, diving shares a governing body with the other aquatic sports.

    * This is frequently a source of political friction as the committees are naturally dominated by swimming officials who do not necessarily share or understand the concerns of the diving community. Divers often feel, for example, that they do not get adequate support over issues like the provision of facilities. Other areas of concern are the selection of personnel for the specialised Diving committees and for coaching and officiating at events, and the team selection for international competitions.

Mechanics of diving

    * Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, a Greek fresco dated 470 BC

    * At the moment of take-off, two critical aspects of the dive are determined, and cannot subsequently be altered during the execution. One is the trajectory of the dive, and the other is the magnitude of the angular momentum.

    * The speed of rotation - and therefore the total amount of rotation - may be varied from moment to moment by changing the shape of the body, in accordance with the law of conservation of angular momentum.

    * The center of mass of the diver follows a parabolic path in free-fall under the influence of gravity (ignoring the effects of air resistance, which are negligible at the speeds involved).


    * Since the parabola is symmetrical, the travel away from the board as the diver passes it is twice the amount of the forward travel at the peak of the flight. Excessive forward distance to the entry point is penalized when scoring a dive, but obviously an adequate clearance from the diving board is essential on safety grounds.

    * The greatest possible height that can be achieved is desirable for several reasons:

    * the height attained is itself one of the factors that the judges will reward.

    * a greater height gives a longer flight time and therefore more time to execute maneuvers.

    * for any given clearance when passing the board, the forward travel distance to the entry point will be less for a higher trajectory.

Wednesday, October 27, 2010



 History Of Boxing

        Boxing originated when a person first lifted a fist against another in play. Different eras of the sport have been distinguished by the use or nonuse of fist coverings. The ancient Greeks believed fist fighting was one of the games played by the gods on Olympus; thus it became part of the Olympic Games in about 688 BC. Homer has a reference to boxing in the Iliad. During Roman times the sport began to thrive on a wide scale. Boxers fought with leather bands around their fists for protection and sometimes wore metal-filled, leather hand coverings called cesti, resulting in bloody, often duel-to-death, battles. Boxing diminished after the fall of Rome. It was revived in the 18th century in England and became especially popular during the championship reign of James Figg, who held the heavyweight title from 1719 through 1730. Boxing became a workingman's sport during the Industrial Revolution as prizefights attracted participants and spectators from the working class. Organization was minimal at first, and the bouts of those eras resembled street fights more than modern boxing.

      The second heavyweight champion, Jack Broughton of England, drew his own set of rules for his own fights, and these were recognized in 1743. They outlawed some of the gorier aspects that the sport had acquired, such as hitting below the belt line. Instead of a ring of spectators--hence, the name ring--Broughton insisted upon a squared-off area. His rules governed what is known as the "bareknuckle era."

Modern Era

    In 1866 the Marquess of Queensberry gave his support to a new set of rules, which were named in his honor. These rules limited the number of 3-minute rounds, eliminated gouging and wrestling, and made the use of gloves mandatory.
    Bareknuckle bouts did not cease immediately but did begin to decline. A new era dawned in 1892, when James J. CORBETT defeated the last of the great bare-fisted fighters, John L. SULLIVAN, under the new rules

   With the growing popularity of boxing, especially in the United States, weight classes other than the unlimited heavyweights emerged. These classes became popular as world championships were held at the new weights. Currently, there are eight major professional divisions: flyweight (up to 112 lb/50.8 kg); bantamweight (118 lb/53.5 kg); featherweight (126 lb/57.2 kg); lightweight (135 lb/61.2 kg); welterweight (147 lb/66.7 kg); middleweight (160 lb/72.6 kg); light heavyweight (175 lb/79.4 kg); and heavyweight (unlimited). In recent years there has been some recognition of junior weights, or between-weights, such as junior lightweight and cruiserweight.

    Because of its violent nature and its identification with betting, boxing has had a controversial history. There have been periodic efforts to outlaw the sport. The November 1982 death of South Korean boxer Duk Koo Kim, for example, prompted two editorials in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Jan. 14, 1983) calling for a ban on all boxing. The results of a study by an AMA-sponsored scientific council appeared in that same issue, and the council, expressing the official AMA position, called not for a ban but for improved controls and medical facilities at ringside, centralized record keeping, and standardization of safety regulations. Despite these periodic efforts, boxers remain internationally famous, particularly heavyweight champions, most of whom, in this century, have come from the United States. Among the best heavyweights have been Muhammad ALI, Jack DEMPSEY, Jack JOHNSON, Joe LOUIS, Rocky MARCIANO, Gene TUNNEY, Corbett, and Sullivan. Outstanding champions in the lighter weights have included Benny Leonard, Mickey WALKER, Barney Ross, Henry ARMSTRONG, and Sugar Ray ROBINSON. Louis, Marciano, and Ali benefited greatly--both in popularity and financially--from the promotion of televised fights.

    Asia and Latin America have produced many champions in recent years in some of the lower weight classes, which are less popular in the United States. The Communist bloc has done exceedingly well in Olympic competition.

About Boxing


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About Supreme Boxing

     Supreme Boxing is an online boxing game in which you have the opportunity to build a fighter and take on the worlds best. Start as a novice with a big heart and big dreams, then develop your skills, rise throught the rankings and enjoy the perks that come with fame and fortune. 

     Fight for regional, weight and international titles and earn the respect of your competitors. Fancy a break from boxing? Why not spend your hard-earned winnings in the casinos, the property market or on a shopping spree?

In Supreme Boxing, there are no limits on how far you can go. Are you good enough?.



History Of Swimming 

   The English are considered the first modern society to develop swimming as a sport. By 1837 swimming competitions were being held in London’s six artificial pools, these competitions were organized by the National Swimming Society in England. As the sport grew in popularity many more swimming pools were built, and when a new governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association of Great Britain, was organized in 1880, it numbered more than 300 member clubs.

   In 1896, swimming became an Olympic sport for men with the 100 meters and 1500 meters freestyle competitions held in open water. Soon after, as swimming gained popularity, more freestyle events were included, followed by the backstroke, butterfly, breaststroke, and lastly, the individual medley.

   For a variety of reasons, women were excluded from swimming in the first several Olympic Games. In 1896 and again in 1906, women could not participate because the developer of the modern games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, held firmly to the assumption, common in the Victorian era, that women were too frail to engage in competitive sports. It was only at the 1912 Games when women’s swimming made its debut at the prompting of the group that later became known as the International Olympic Committee.

   The first modern Olympic Games had only four swimming events, three of them freestyle. The second Olympics in Paris in 1900 included three unusual swimming events. One used an obstacle course; another was a test of underwater swimming endurance; the third was a 4,000-metre event, the longest competitive swimming event ever. None of the three was ever used in the Olympics again.

   From this humble beginning with four swimming events, the Olympics have now developed to 32 swimming races, 16 for men and 16 for women. The Special Olympics includes competitive swimming for people with disabilities and has 22 events for men and 22 for women.

  The first swimming meet approved by the NCAA was held in 1924 at the U.S. Naval Academy. It was not until 1937 that the NCAA classed it as an official National Collegiate Championship Meet.

Swimming Info 


   The technical rules of swimming are designed to provide fair and equitable conditions for competitionand to promote uniformity in the sport. Each swimming stroke has specific rules designed to ensure that no swimmer gets an unfair competitive advantage over another swimmer. The technical rules for each stroke may be found in the publication “Unites States Swimming Rules and Regulations”. You can ask the coachto see a copy of this booklet.


    The four competitive strokes are (1) freestyle, (2) backstroke, (3) breaststroke, and (4) butterfly. Events are held in all of the competitive strokes at varying distances depending on the age-group of the swimmer. In addition, there is a combination of the strokes swum by one swimmer called the individual medley (IM). Other swimming events include relays, which are a group of four swimmers who either all swim freestyle (freestyle relay) or each swim one of the competitive strokes in the order of backstroke, breaststroke,butterfly and freestyle (medley relay).


   In Freestyle events, the competitor may swim any stroke. The stroke most commonly used is sometimes called the crawl, which is characterized by the alternate stroking of the arms over the water
surface and an alternating (up-and-down) flutter kick. On turns and finishes, some part of the swimmer must touch the wall. Most swimmers do a flip turn.

   The Backstroke consists of an alternating motion of the arms with a flutter kick while on the back. On turns, swimmers may rotate to the stomach and perform a flip turn and some part of the swimmer must touch the wall. The swimmer must finish on the back.

     The Breaststroke requires simultaneous movements of the arms on the same horizontal plane. Thehands are pressed out from in front of the breast in a heart shaped pattern and recovered under or on thesurface of the water. The kick is a simultaneous somewhat circular motion similar to the action of a frog. On turns and at the finish, the swimmer must touch the wall with both hands simultaneously at, above or below the water surface.


    The Butterfly features a simultaneous recovery of the arms over the water combined with an undulating dolphin kick. In the kick, the swimmer must keep both legs together and may not flutter, scissors or use the breaststroke kick. Both hands must touch the wall simultaneously on the turns and the finish.


   Commonly referred to as the I.M., features all four strokes. In the IM, the swimmer begins with the butterfly, then changes after one-fourth of the race to backstroke, then breaststroke and finally freestyle.


   The swimmers are not allowed a false start. If they jump the start and the starter thinks they are trying to get an advantage (whether intentional or not-it does not matter), they will be taken out of the race. This is not like the Olympics where they are allowed two false starts.